News, research and discussion on virtual goods, currencies and economies globally.


The VERN bibliography collects references to books and scholarly papers, whether published in print or online, that are related to virtual goods, currencies and economies. You can annotate entries using the commenting feature. Registered members may also add new entries here. New entries appear in the list after they have been processed by the editors.

Authorsort icon Year Title Publication information Cmts
Alves, Tiago Reis; Roque, Licínio 2007 Because Players Pay: The Business Model Influence on MMOG Design Proceedings of DiGRA 2007: Situated Play. Tokyo: The University of Tokyo, September, 2007. Pp. 658-663. 1
Andrew Jankowich 2005 Property and Democracy in Virtual Worlds 11 Boston University Journal of Science and Technology Law 173 1
Andrew Jankowich 2006 EULAw: The Complex Web of Corporate Rule-Making in Virtual Worlds 8 Tulane Journal of Technology and Intellectual Property 1
Arakji, Reina Yahya and Lang, Karl Reiner 2008 Avatar Business Value Analysis: A Method for the Evaluation of Business Value Creation in Virtual Commerce Journal of Electronic Commerce Research 9(3), pp. 207-218 1
Archinaco, Jason A. 2006 Virtual Worlds, Real Damages: The Odd Case of American Hero, the Greatest Horse that May Have Lived Unpublished manuscript 1
Atlas, Stephen A. 2008 Inductive Metanomics: Economic Experiments in Virtual Worlds Journal of Virtual World Research, Vol. 1, No. 1, July 1
Balkin, Jack M. 2004 Virtual Liberty: Freedom to Design and Freedom to Play in Virtual Worlds 90 Virginia Law Review 2043. 1
Balkin, Jack M. (editor) 2006 The State of Play: Law, Games, and Virtual Worlds New York University Press 0
Barnes, Stuart and Mattsson, Jan 2008 Brand Value in Virtual Worlds: An Axiological Approach Journal of Electronic Commerce Research 9(3), pp. 195-206 1
Bartle, Richard 2003 Designing Virtual Worlds Indianapolis: New Riders. 1
Bartle, Richard 2004 Pitfalls of Virtual Property The Themis Group white paper, April 2004. 3
Berry, J.; Papagiannidis, S. 2008 Living in ‘Multiple Spaces’: MMORPGS and their Business Implications In: Pagani, M, ed. Encyclopedia of multimedia technology and networking. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Reference, 2007. 0
Bethke, Erik and Hoffman, Erin (eds.) 2008 Settlers of the New Virtual Worlds BookSurge Publishing 1
Book, Betsy 2004 These bodies are FREE, so get one NOW!: Advertising and Branding in Social Virtual Worlds Unpublished manuscript 2
Book, Betsy 2004 Moving Beyond the Game: Social Virtual Worlds Unpublished manuscript 1
Book, Betsy 2005 Virtual World Business Brands: Entrepreneurship and Identity in Massively Multiplayer Online Gaming Environments Unpublished manuscript 1
Bourlakis, M., Papagiannidis, S., Fox, H. 2008 Live music and performances in a virtual world. In T. Kautonen & H. Karjaluoto (Eds.), Trust and New Technologies. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing 1
Bradley, Caroline, and Froomkin, A. Michael 2003 Virtual Worlds, Real Rules TPRC Conference Paper (31 August 2003). 1
Bromberger, Jan 2006 The Social Construction of Virtual Assets. Step One: Relevant Social Groups and Interpretive Flexibility Unpublished manuscript 1
Burke, Timothy 2002 Rubicite Breastplate Priced to Move, Cheap: How Virtual Economies Become Real Simulations Unpublished manuscript 0
Burke, Timothy 2004 Play of State: Sovereignty and Governance in MMOGs Unpublished manuscript 0
Camp, Bryan T. 2007 The Play’s the Thing: a Theory of Taxing Virtual Worlds Working paper 1
Castronova, Edward 2008 A Test of the Law of Demand in a Virtual World: Exploring the Petri Dish Approach to Social Science CESifo Working Paper Series No. 2355 1
Castronova, Edward 2001 Virtual Worlds: A First-Hand Account of Market and Society on the Cyberian Frontier CESifo Working Paper Series No. 618 1
Castronova, Edward 2002 On Virtual Economies CESifo Working Paper Series No. 752 (July 2002). 2
Castronova, Edward 2003 Theory of the Avatar CESifo Working Paper Series No. 863 (February 2003). 0
Castronova, Edward 2004 The Price of Bodies: A Hedonic Pricing Model of Avatar Attributes in a Synthetic World Kyklos, Vol. 57, No. 2, pp. 173-196. 1
Castronova, Edward 2004 The Right to Play 49(1) New York Law School Law Review 185. 0
Castronova, Edward 2005 Synthetic Worlds: The Business and Culture of Online Games University Of Chicago Press. 5
Castronova, Edward 2006 A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Real-Money Trade in the Products of Synthetic Economies Info, Vol. 8, No. 6 2
Castronova, Edward 2005 Synthetic Economies and the Social Question Working Paper Series 1
Castronova, Edward 2005 Real Products in Imaginary Worlds Harvard Business Review, pp. 20-22, May 2005 1
Castronova, Edward 2005 On the Research Value of Large Games: Natural Experiments in Norrath and Camelot CESifo Working Paper Series No. 1621 1
Chesney, Thomas; Chuah, Swee-Hoon; Hoffman, Robert 2007 Virtual world experimentation: An exploratory study Nottingham University Business School, Industrial Economics Division, Occasional papers 2007-21 1
Dibbell, Julian 1995 MUD Money: A Talk on Virtual Value and, Incidentally, the Value of the Virtual Presented at Stages of the Virtual conference, April 1995. 1
Dibbell, Julian 2006 Play Money New York: Basic Books 0
Eriksson, Anders; Grill, Kalle 2005 Who owns my avatar? — Rights in virtual property Proceedings of DiGRA 2005. 1
Fairfield, Joshua 2005 Virtual Property Boston University Law Review, Vol. 85, page 1047 3
Fairfield, Joshua 2007 Anti-Social Contracts: The Contractual Governance of Online Communities Working paper 1
Farmer, F. Randall 2004 KidTrade: A Design for an eBay-resistant Virtual Economy Unpublished manuscript 0
Gervassis, Nicolas J. 2004 In Search of the Value of Online Electronic Personae: Commercial MMORPGs and the Terms of Participation in Virtual Communities 3 Journal of Information, Law and Technology. 1
Grimm, Thomas, and Mitlöhner, Johann 1995 Developing a Virtual Reality for the Simulation of Agent Based Economic Models Unpublished manuscript 1
Grimmelmann, James 2005 Virtual Borders: The Interdependence of Real and Virtual Worlds Unpublished manuscript 1
Grimmelmann, James 2004 Virtual Worlds as Comparative Law 47 New York Law School Law Review 147. 1
Guo, Yue; Barnes, Stuart 2007 Why People Buy Virtual Items in Virtual Worlds With Real Money The DATA BASE for Advances in Information Systems: Volume 38, Issue 4, November 2007. Pp. 69-75. 1
Heeks, Richard 2008 Current Analysis and Future Research Agenda on "Gold Farming" Development informatics working paper No. 32, Institute for Development Policy and Management, University of Manchester 1
Huhh, Jun-Sok 2005 Empirical Study on the Decline of Lineage 2 in Korea Unpublished manuscript 1
Huhh, Jun-Sok 2006 Effects of Real-Money Trading on MMOG Demand: A Network Externality Based Explanation Unpublished manuscript 1
Huhh, Jun-Sok 2008 Simple Economics of Real-Money Trading in Online Games Working paper, last revised May 7. 1
Huhh, Jun-Sok and Park, Sang-Woo 2005 Game Design, Trading Markets, and Playing Practices – What did Lineage do for enchanting Korean players? Unpublished manuscript 1